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What is The Difference Between AWD and 4WD

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During my many years of driving I have owned various cars with Rear-Wheel Drive (RWD), front Wheel drive, Four-Wheel Drive (4WD) and now I own a Subaru Outback, with All-Wheel Drive (AWD). I bought the Subaru not because it had all wheel drive, but because it was a nice looking car. Designed for country and outback traveling, which is what I enjoy doing. But since owning it I’ve been wanting to know what is the difference between All-Wheel Drive and Four-Wheel Drive, and here’s what I found out?

Four-Wheel Drive is not ON all the time? under normal conditions only the Rear Wheels Drive the vehicle forward while the front wheels spin freely, to activate a modern four-wheel drive system, the driver has to push a button, or pull a lever to engage it. But Four-Wheel Drive isn’t meant to be ON all the time. So you have to know when to turn it ON and when to turn it OFF. But All-Wheel Drive (AWD) is ON all the time, and mostly used in cars, and the computer manages the system. Just going down the highway, the system will send most of the power to the rear wheels, for maximum fuel efficiency. If the road condition changes – such as rain or snow – the system adapts and evenly distributes the power evenly to all four wheels, so you have maximum drive grip with little to no chance of wheel spin.

In contrast on a normal Two-Wheel Drive car, or even a Four-Wheel Drive in Two-Wheel Drive mode, the power transmitted to the wheels will always look for the path of least resistance. Which is normally the tire that is spinning and not the vehicle forward. Most people will be familiar with this when it rains, when they accelerate off at the lights Or at an intersection and the drive wheel just spins on the wet slippery road, all wheel drive cars do not do this. Since owning my Subaru Outback, I have never spun my wheels on a wet slippery road either taking off the lights are turning at an intersection. When I drove my two wheel drive cars and four-wheel drive in two-wheel drive mode, I would slip all the time and I even spun 180 degrees in my Nissan patrol. So what advantage does 4-wheel Drive have over all wheel drive? well in extreme surface conditions such as loose stones, dirt, deep mud, snow or water a Four-Wheel Drive system can provide more traction and control for the driver, but vehicles still set in full drive mode can be dangerous once back on dry tarmac roads as Axles are not designed to rotate at the same speed in normal cornering.

Four-wheel drive is better for offroad in extreme weather conditions, but is usually only turned on when required for those conditions. But all-wheel drive stays on all the time, and is better for more general driving conditions. Plus it gives the car a sporty feel, both systems add quite a bit of weight to the vehicle, and you will end up paying for this at the fuel pump, as both types of vehicles are not very fuel-efficient. four-wheel drives because they are usually big and heavy with heavy complex drive systems, and All-wheel drive because it is always active. I’ve been driving my Subaru Outback for two years now And I love it. It is less fuel efficient than my old two-wheel drive car, but I have never had any wheel slippage on wet roads, when taking off at lights or at intersections And it feels like a heavier and safer car.

But even though you have all this extra safety and peace of mind 90 to 95 percent of the time you were just driving around your local suburb. And it does bug me that I’m not as fuel-efficient as other cars, to give you an idea how bad it is, my old 94 Mitsubishi Galant V6 front-wheel drive got about 450 kilometers per 60 litre tank, in city and suburb driving my 2006 Subaru Outback 4-cylinder gets about 350 kilometers per 60 litre tank, so two cylinders less, and I still get a hundred kilometers less per tank. It does make you think is this constant all-wheel drive really worth the extra money, I guess it all depends if you drive often in bad weather conditions, then I think you will agree it does Anyway

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Car Reviews

Mercedes-Benz GLA 250 will rows up by 2021 !

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If you think the migration to SUVs and crossovers is a unique American phenomena well nope it’s happening all over the world, in the U.S we go for the bigger ones because we have the space to park them and cheap fuel to feed them, other markets prefer smaller ones like the all-new 2021 Mercedes-Benz GLA 250, proving my point Mercedes has moved over a million copies of the GLA since 2014, and there’s Audi Q3, BMW X1 and X2, Cadillac XT4, LEXUS UX, Mini Countryman and Volvo XC42 maybe even Tesla model Y, if you want electric so there are big choices in small crossovers.

GLA is taller now by some three inches so it looks less like a hatchback and more like the SUV crossover that Mercedes markets. It rides on an all-new platform that it shares with the GLB, which has three rows of seating.

GLA is marketed as the sportier of the two the kind of vehicle targeted towards younger singles and couples, or empty nesters that don’t need a large car but want practicality, and back to size it’s a half inch shorter and just over an inch wider now, retail pricing begins at about thirty seven thousand three hundred dollars, but let’s face it to get the true Mercedes experience options must be added. A significant amount of buyers will hand over two grand for all-wheel drive and the off-road engineering package that’s bundled with it same goes for moving from seven inch displays to these larger ten and a quarter inch screens that’s part of the 1750 premium package as seen here in upgraded mountain gray metallic paint this one retails for 51 200 bucks.

Add more stuff and it’ll crest at just over 57 large, small doesn’t mean inexpensive this has the star so you know that going in, no word if the plug-in hybrid model is coming to the us, for now GLA is get their motivation from a turbocharged 2-liter in-line 4-cylinder offering up 221 horsepower 258 pound-feet of torque and a distinct coarse sound outside the car.

Fortunately it isn’t heard inside, an eight-speed dual clutch transmission takes care of shifting duties while this isn’t a sports car manual shifts are a thing in the GLA, and there are modes including a custom setting to adjust the throttle, dampers, steering and transmission response to your liking.

If you have the need for speed never fear AMG will be coming to the rescue soon, but the 250 is actually fairly quick off the line 0-60 happens in about 6 seconds. Mercedes says the GLA 45 AMG with its 382 horsepower will cut some two seconds off the 60 mile an hour sprint count on it vacuuming a lot of money from your wallet too. The 250 should be plenty punchy for most people, for a small crossover you do sit on the high side not a ton of ground clearance GLA is good for some light off-roading, but really the city is its natural habitat chuck this thing into a corner, and it’s surprisingly engaging it’s kind of fun to drive, brake torque vectoring helps so does the compact size that adds confidence when snaking through dense urban traffic, the Europeans and Asians understand big is not always best. I had a good time from behind the wheel maybe it’s not quite as compelling as the BMW X2, but certainly fun enough. No complaints about the dual clutch calibration and body roll and dive are kept to a minimum, for a crossover ride quality is smooth and supple it’s quiet in here too.

Larger Mercedes crossovers with longer wheelbases have a more plush, feel to them with a fully independent suspension, this small vehicle is about as polished as it can be, the optional navigation system offers up very useful augmented reality cues. GLA gets a lot of features found on larger Mercedes if optioned up of course, you’ll want the 1700 driver assistance package that boosts the active electronic safety tech to a very high level, this includes route-based adaptive cruise control that knows to slow down for sharper turns evasive steering assist even a system that points out pedestrians near crosswalks, it’s actually a good deal.

On the highway the lane keep assist is excellent it stays locked within the lane doesn’t bob between the stripes nobody’s gonna report you as a drunk driver, and it takes gentle curves pretty confidently. It also changes lanes with the tap of a turn signal on the freeway easy enough to do on your own, but it’s a trick that impresses friends. The 2nd gen GLA is more fuel efficient by a couple M/GS on average, the EPA figures it’ll go 27 miles on a gallon of specified premium gasoline.

Nearly all modern cars have automatic engine start stop systems these days to save fuel, visibility is decent though like the outgoing model checking the blind spot over my left shoulder offers up a face full of b-pillar, something to check on your test drive. My biggest complaint with the first GLA, the interior was not exactly Mercedes grade, it felt like the budget model, buyers will feel a lot better about spending 51 grand when looking at all this, while there is some material evidence that you’re not in a GLE or GLS, the cabin as best in class these have a silky feel to them too, practical touches include an umbrella tray, and couple doors that are good for both red bull cans, there are storage cubbies scattered all around, none of them big this is a small vehicle after all, but it helps to keep a person organized. One thing though you’ll be buying new cords or adapters since Mercedes is moving to the future of USB, Android auto and apple carplay are standard kit gesture controls are optional, there are also tiny track pads here that work better than you might imagine, you can change up the gauge cluster and such.

The voice command system in this car is pretty good, it’s called MBUX, you can ask it all sorts of questions like where’s the closest coffee shop, it works well and that’s good since I find some of the features are buried a little deeper in the menu than I like, the touchpad is far better than what you’ll find in Alexis, but I use the screen that’s easy to reach with excellent response. Remember, these are the large panels and you’re going to want them.

The leather seats, optional of course, are heated and can be vented too that means spending more money, they’re on the firm side and should fit a wide variety of drivers, the 1500 panoramic roof gives the space a more airy feeling good because this is a small vehicle, while my camera can’t do it justice the optional ambient lighting package will encourage midnight taco bell runs, even if delivery is available, there’s a little bit of tron happening in here and it can be set to all the colors of the rainbow, including some presets that offer up color combinations, including a blue and green combo.

Lighting is just another differentiator between luxury and mainstream brands these days, that goes for both inside and out.

At 15.4 cubic feet the cargo hold is a tiny bit larger now the first gen took on five packs of tp that won’t change, and I took the security cover off to show that at the very least you don’t have to leave it at home, there is no spare tire just a repair kit, not great if you’re off-roading. The floor drops to a lower level if you don’t store things under it there are small details to help functionality, I wish every car had this elastic strap, or two of them. Optioned right. The seat backs have a rake adjustment, it’s easy enough to drop them it’s not a completely flat load floor if you need that but.

The second generation GLA’s design has fewer creases and lines than the first one, it’s a softer look that’s a better family fit with the larger GLC and GLE, in nearly every dimension inside it’s roomier than the first generation, but not by a huge amount, there’s an illuminated star option but remember if you’re the driver you may never see it. GLA does not redefine the design language of crossovers, it’s a conservative draw, but it looks bigger now, and it looks like a Mercedes, it’s what was needed.

Let’s wrap this up with red light, green light.

Green Light:

Excellent driving dynamics

Best in class interior design and materials

Compact yet practical

Yellow Lights:

Grumbly engine outside sounds smooth inside

Impressive features are all optional

Some functions deep in the menu

Green Lights:

Price ladder rises very quickly

No Spare Tire

Premium fuel cuts into your budget

 

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Car Reviews

Volvo or Tesla which is the safest SUV

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Volvo has managed to take the leadership of creating high safety cars for many years, but there is a relatively new company that aims at revolutionizing the industry by electrifying transportation and setting the standard in every category, the name of the company is Tesla, which is known to keep improving on its vehicles all the time paying special attention to safety, and today we will compare the safest all-electric SUV from Tesla with the safest gasoline-powered full-size SUV from Volvo to see which one is the leader.

Unlike normal IC cars, the fully electric Tesla Model X doesn’t have a big front engine, which gives the vehicle an advantage during frontal offset and full width tests, as the durable empty steel absorbs the worst of the impact from occupants. As a result in both frontal tests the driver and passengers had a good or adequate protection for all critical body parts, but unfortunately the neck protection of a dummy representing a ten-year-old boy was marginal. The combustion engine in the front didn’t prevent Volvo to show excellent results, which lost a Tesla by just no point two percent, but managed to achieve perfect results in terms of protecting kids.

In the side tests the XC90 scored nearly maximum points with good protection of all critical body areas except a little elevated risk of injury for the chest, the protection of which was rated as adequate in the more severe side poll impact, but Tesla’s results were superior since the vehicle managed to absorb the impact thanks to the strong side structure providing perfect safety for occupants. In the tests of the front seats and head restraints both vehicles demonstrated good protection against whiplash injuries in the event of a rear-end collision.

Tesla is more vulnerable for road users in case of a collision, but with its advanced autopilot assists the collisions reaches to minimum although the Model X couldn’t avoid the collision with the kid and only managed to mitigate the impact, in other safety tests Tesla has shown perfect results better than any other vehicle ever tested. In general the bigger and heavier the vehicle the safer it is, but in this case petrol cars have more rollover risk because of the highest center of gravity and here electric vehicles have an advantage, since the battery is mounted under the floor it gives the vehicle a lower center of gravity minimizing the chances to rollover with respective 9.3% rollover risk for the Tesla Model X and 15.9% for the Volvo xc90.

So both vehicles appear to be very safe but thanks to its electric drivetrain and the leading position in the autonomous technology the Model X demonstrated overall better results.

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Car Reviews

Old Land Rover Defender 90 vs New – featuring 1948 Series 1 and 2016 Heritage Edition

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Once upon a time when someone said Land Rover, it came to mind this picture above.

A series 1 Land Rover the first example ever registered in Australia and the 138 vehicle ever built by the iconic British brand, this is a car and a brand with a lot of history Land Rover and this model itself launched way back in 1948 in the shadows of World War 2, and it’s clear that the inspiration was the army spec Willys Jeep, however Land Rover says it’s car was always about agriculture, and we believe this particular model spent the majority of its life on a farm out near young.

History tells us that the Land Rover was only supposed to be built for a few years until parent company Rover had enough cash flow to sort out its luxury car offerings, but the popularity of the Land Rover was unprecedented, and here we are nearly 70 years down the track and it will soon be time to say goodbye to this icon.

The current models are still built on the same production line in Solihull England, and while a lot has changed over the years in terms of interior comfort refinement and engine technology, there are a few things that have remained the same like the all aluminium alloy body and the exposed rivets, which still remain pretty cool let’s take a closer look at the series one and see just how basic the original Land Rover really was.

Back in the day the original Land Rover, that was so basic, the door tops were an option so was the roof and it’s fair to say that this is not what anyone would have considered comfortable, but what it was highly versatile four-wheel drive meant, you could go pretty much anywhere and this car has been everywhere, it’s been to birds build would you believe, it would have been a slow trip the steering’s extremely heavy and there’s a lot of play the engine is ridiculously noisy.

It’s a 1.6 litre four-cylinder petrol four-speed, manual gearbox and the linkages between the gears tights, is it a cool thing to drive? Yes. it is has it got plenty of history, yes it does, pretty lucky to be able to do this to be honest.

The series 1, series 2 and 2A and series 3, all came and went and they were replaced by a different set of numbers the 94 the short wheelbase, and the 110 for the long wheelbase and then came a named defender.

 

We believe this defender may be one of the first ever produced. Obviously it looks more modern it’s got fully enclosed body full-sized doors, and a single piece windscreen, but further to that the defender the 90 and the 110 took the brand forward in terms of technology and comfort.

When the body shape changed to the 90 and 110 and then the defender after that, it brought with it a more advanced suspension setup coil springs all around, and the idea was that it will make it more comfortable and offer better off-road ability due to better wheel articulation. It’s a mile more comfortable over bumps than the old series one, it also brought with it new engines it is about 2.5 liter turbo diesel, and a five-speed manual gearbox so an extra gear over the old series three and two and two a and one and all the ones that came before it.

Back 2.5 liters got about eighty kilowatts and two hundred, and forty Newton meters talk and it does feel relatively peppy though, it is extremely loud and down low in the rev range. One of the other things that got as part of the 90 and 110 upgrade, was a Range Rover derived off-road system with diff lock apparently that makes it a menace off-road.

All those years of progress have led us to this point the Land Rover Defender 90 heritage Edition a limited run model that sold out in Australia and probably sold out all around the world as well.

It’s a nod to the first ever Land Rover which had the number plate HUE 166, and was affectionately referred to as Huey. This model though is a long way from where the first model started off, it builds upon the 90, but with some authentic sort of retro style changes including the grasmere green paint on the body and the wheels and it’s also got the original Land Rover badges and the authentic looking plastic grille

Inside that Land Rover logo is also embossed on the almond cloth trim seats while there are also red and yellow trims around the gear shifters, and a metallic four-wheel-drive plaque to help you on your way.

It’s still hard work, it’s still hard to get in and out of and it’s still quite a chore to drive particularly around town, but what it is like the series one and the defender before it is characterful, and very fulfilling to drive, it’s a lot of fun. As time has moved on there’s been other changes such as a new engine 2.2 liter turbo diesel, in this one and a new gearbox 6-speed manual.

it’s too rare how rare is it well only 2654 will be sold worldwide, that’s a tiny point one percent of all Land Rover series models, and defenders ever made total is more than 2 million. So it’s rare.

If you’re one of the fortunate few who gets to put one of these in your garage, you’ll be happy to know that while times may be changing, the spirit of Land Rover certainly has it we just hope that the next generation defender can stay true to that spirit.

 

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